The American Perseverance rover has landed on Mars

 The American Perseverance rover has landed on Mars

The American Perseverance planetary rover landed on Mars on Thursday. This is part of the NASA Mars 2020 mission. The rover was delivered to the surface of Mars by a special landing platform, which at a height of 21.3 meters released it on lines and gently set it on Martian ground.

Perseverance landed in the Jezero Impact Crater, which is 49 km in diameter. Probably in the ancient history of Mars, there was a lake of liquid water in this place.

The Perseverance landing on Mars lasted several minutes. It started at 9:38 PM with the disconnection of the rover landing capsule from the cruise module that was used to travel from Earth to orbit around Mars. Then the entry into the atmosphere of the Red Planet began.

At an altitude of 9-13 km and at a speed of 420 m / s, the parachute unfolded, and shortly afterwards the heat shield was thrown back. A moment later, the parachute rear cover detached and then a special landing platform, which was constantly reducing speed, joined the action. Being at a height of 21.3 meters, the platform released the rover down and gently rested it on ropes on Martian ground, then flew away by itself.

The rocket with the rover was launched in July last year from Cape Canaveral in Florida.

NASA scientists are setting several scientific goals for the Perseverance mission. He will look for traces of organic life, he will measure the chemical and mineral composition of the surface, as well as temperature, wind speed and direction, pressure, relative humidity and the properties of dust floating in the atmosphere.

The collected samples will return to Earth and will allow you to better prepare for the next missions. It is also important how the applied technical and technological solutions will prove, which can be used in future missions, including those involving people.

Perseverance is the size of a car and weighs just over a ton. In addition to the set of sensors of the mobile Physico-chemical laboratory, a special flying drone Ingenuity (ingenuity), resembling a small helicopter, will take off from the rover. It will be powered by sunlight, and during the mission, it is to make at least a few reconnaissance flights at a short distance from the parent vehicle. This is the first machine of this type in the history of astronautics.

The drone will ascend to a height of 3-5 meters, its range is approximately 50 meters from the take-off site and 90 seconds of flight time.

Another novelty in Martian missions is the microphones that Perseverance will have at its disposal.

The seven scientific instruments working onboard the rover include a fluorescence spectrometer for the X-ray range, a radar imaging the subsurface area, a set of sensors for meteorological measurements, a device for experimental oxygen production, a camera for taking photos, chemical and mineralogical analyzes from a distance, a stereoscopic camera with zoom capability image, ultraviolet spectrometer.

The cost of the entire Mars 2020 project was $ 2.4 billion. NASA estimates that another $ 300 million will be spent on continuing the mission, which is expected to last one Martian year (687 Earth days). (PAP)

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